T. P. Rajalakshmi: The Forgotten Queen of Tamil Cinema

« Cinema Rani »: that’s the title earned by T.P. Rajalakshmi who became a major star of the nascent Tamil cinema in the 1930s. She was part of the avant-garde that paved the way when film industry was in its infancy in South India, and she was definitely a pioneer in more than one respect, being one of the first female theatre artists in Tamil Nadu, the first actress of Tamil cinema, the first female director and producer of South Indian cinema. Yet, she is hardly known and celebrated nowadays !


A still of T.P. Rajalakshmi from the magazine Cine Art Review, 1937. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.

Born in 1911 in Saliamangalam village in the district of Tanjore, Rajalakshmi’s early life was punctuated by many traumas as she was the victim of a child marriage at the age of 7 and never went to her older “husband’s” house due to dowry issues. She also lost her father some time after. As she and her mother fell into poverty, they moved to Thiruchi, and Rajalakshmi, who was a gifted child, started to sing to earn money for her family. Then, at a time when women were not allowed to act in dramas, she got involved in theatre and very soon met Sankaradas Swamigal, known as the father of Tamil Theatre, who recommended her in the milieu. From there, the young teenager joined many drama troupes like Cunniah Company, travelled a lot, and captivated audiences with her singing and acting talent.

Her rise as a popular drama artist coincided with the first steps of Tamil Cinema as it didn’t take long for Rajalakshmi to take the plunge in the Tamil film industry. In 1929, she acted in her first silent film, “Kovalan” and above all, in 1931, she was the heroine of “Kalidas”, recognized as the first Tamil talkie even though it was, in fact, multilingual—the hero spoke Telugu, the heroine spoke Tamil and some other characters spoke Hindi. At a time when the Tamilness of movies remained a question mark as most of them where technically made in Kolkata or Mumbai, the multitalented Rajalakshmi became the main attraction for a Tamil audience—indeed, her songs and dialogues in Tamil were much awaited (the movie has more than 50 songs!). One has to imagine the craze when this first talkie starring the most popular drama artist was released at the Madras Kinema Central—her name was announced from speakers, people used to stand outside theatres to see her acting; she was the Super Star of early Tamil cinema. She pursued her film career with box office successes like “Ramayan,” “Sathyavan Savithri,” and “Valli Thirumanam.” 

2A still of T.P. Rajalakshmi from the magazine Anandha Vikatan Deepavali Malar, 1937, mentioning her as the actor from Tamil talkies. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.

However, T.P. Rajalakshmi’s thirst for art and cinema didn’t stop with the acting/singing parts. She was also a writer, producer, director and an editor. Indeed, after almost ten years of her career, she created her own production company, Sri Rajam Talkies, in order to make films by herself. That’s how she became the first woman director in South India in 1936 with her film “Miss Kamala” —an adaptation of her own novel, “Kamalavalli.” She was omnipresent in the making of this movie—acting, singing, directing, editing, producing, and even expecting a baby as she was pregnant with her daughter (her daughter was born in November and named Kamala after her mother’s film). She was a one-woman band, in other words. With this film, she became the first female director in South India, and the second one in India after Fatma Begum. 

3An advertisement of the film Miss Kamala from the magazine Anandha Vikatan Deepavali Malar, 1936, mentioning TPR’s production venture Sri Rajam Talkies. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.
4A still of T.P. Ralalakshmi from the film Miss Kamala. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.

Even though Rajalakshmi didn’t stop acting for other directors, after the success of “Miss Kamala,” she directed two other movies, the even more successful “Madurai Veeran” in 1939 and then, the major failure “Indiya Thai/Tamil Thai” in 1940. For her daughter Kamala, this movie was the swan song of her mother’s career as acting offers slowly dropped from there. Yet, Rajalakshmi didn’t mind too much for this commercial flop as she achieved what she wanted—to make a patriotic movie glorifying the Freedom movement and criticizing British rule.

5A still of V.A. Chellappa and T.P. Rajalakshmi from the magazine Anandha Vikatan Deepavali Malar, 1938, announcing these 2 stars in the film Madurai Veeran. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.
6An advertisement of the film Madurai Veeran from the magazine Anandha Vikatan Deepavali Malar, 1938. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.

Indeed, not only was she a multi talented artist, but a political activist and a freedom fighter in British India. She was imprisoned by British authorities for acting in dramas and writing songs that criticized their presence; one of them was named “Parandhu Pongada Vellai Kokkugala” (Fly away white storks), a straight anticolonial punch, in sum. Her works were also often censored. For example, as “India Thai” sounded too patriotic, the movie had to be renamed “Tamil Thai.” Patriot, politically rebellious, Rajalakshmi was also a fierce feminist who fought against child marriage, sati and in favour of widow remarriage. But she didn’t stop there and turned her words into action as, for instance, she adopted girl children to save them from female infanticide. In all logic, she was associated with the Indian National Congress and with great names of the Tamil political scene. Thus, Periyar E.V. Ramasamy used to address Rajalakshmi as “sister” and appreciated her artistic talents and her political thoughts. 

Although she quit the film industry in the 1940s, her name remained synonymous with the illustrious early Tamil cinema and she was very respected by successors like Sivaji Ganesan and M.G. Ramachandran. Thus, when she was given the “Kalaimamani Award” in 1961, MGR sent his own car to pick her up at her house, after he was informed that she was not doing well. However, the last part of her life was marked by financial difficulties. Even though her career made her very wealthy and the owner of many properties, she eventually had to sell her properties and live in a house on rent. Like many great female stars of Tamil film industry after her, Rajalakshmi’s last years were far from the lights and glory of stardom, and sadly, she died in 1964, in the greatest indifference. 

7A still of T.P. Ralalakshmi and M.D. Parthasarthy (also the composer for the movie) with others from the Film Draupathi Vastrapaharanam. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.
8A still of T.P. Rajalakshmi with master Sethuraman from the film Nanda Kumar from magazine Cine Art Review, 1937. Image Credit: The Cinema Resource Centre, Chennai.

The kaleidoscopic great lady of Tamil cinema—that’s how T.P. Rajalakshmi could be remembered. The more I learn about her, the more I am stunned by her enthusiastic desire for cinema, by her feminist and political thoughts and by her courage. How did she find the energy and the determination to achieve so much in the most patriarchal and conservative Tamil society of the early 20th century? The answer is maybe in her lost movie, “Miss Kamala,” which is somehow a reflection of the emancipated life Rajalakshmi dreamt for womankind where a young woman who is victim of cruel guardians and finally escapes from them returns with her lover even though she is married. 

An avant-garde. A feminist visionary. A legend who set the example throughout her life. It’s time to remember this forgotten queen of Tamil cinema and to give her the crowning that fits her grandeur.

About The Author:

Shakila Zamboulingame is a history/geography professor from the Tamil diaspora, born in Pondicherry but living in France since childhood. After a Masters on french history and research on war photojournalism, she is now beginning a new PhD project about Tamil Cinema. Since 2016, she is also running a blog (1916tamilcinema.com) and an Instagram account, named “1916 about Tamil cinema” (@1916tamilcinema), where she analyzes Tamil cinema, especially through visual culture and gender representations.

Song Book: Amuthavalli (1959)

1Songbook cover of Amuthavalli (1959) directed by A.K. Sekar. The lead actors M.N. Rajam, T.R. Mahalingam and Tambaram Lalitha are seen in the image. The music was by the duo Viswanathan-Ramamurthy and lyrics by Udumalai Narayana Kavi, Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass, Kannadasan, Pattukkottai Kalyanasundaram and Muthu Koothan.

There were 12 songs in this movie:

  1. Taththuva Kalaiyudan
  2. Anbum Amaidhiyum
  3. Kannirandum Ondrai Onru
  4. Pitham Theliya Marundhondru
  5. Jilu Jilukkum Pachai Malai
  6. Kollimalai Vaazhum
  7. Kaalam Ennum Oru Aazhak Kadalinil (duet)
  8. Kangal Rendum Vandu
  9. Singara Vadivaana Thithikkum
  10. Kaalam Ennum Oru Aazhak Kadalinil (Female solo)
  11. Aadai Katti Vantha Nilavo
  12. Paasaththaal Enai Yeendra

Amuthavalli (1959) starred M.N. Rajam in the lead role. Although she started acting at the age of 9 as a child artist in Nallathambi (1949), she seldom played the lead role. Methavigal (1955) was her first film playing a female lead. She was then in a few films as the heroine (before Amuthavalli, opposite Prem Nazir), like Thai Piranthal Vazhi Pirakkum (1958), Periya koil (1958) and Kalyanikku Kalyanam (1959). She played a vamp in most of the films and received appreciation before shifting to motherly and elderly roles from the 1970s.

She married the singer A.L. Raghavan, a popular Tamil playback singer, on 2 May 1960. Both of them had started their careers on stage, at the ages of 7 and 8 respectively.

A.L. Raghavan started his acting career in 1947 with Jupiter Pictures’ Krishna Vijayam, which released only in the year 1950 as Lord Krishna. He also played Lord Panduranga in Royal Talkies’ Sudarshan (1951).


Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XXI)

21-1Still from the movie Kanavane Kankanda Deivam (1955) directed by T.R. Raghunath.

Kanavane Kankanda Deivam (1955) was directed by T.R.Raghunath. Gemini Ganesan and Anjali Devi played the lead roles. T.R. Raghunath, younger brother of well-known director Raja Chandrasekhar began his career as a sound recordist after getting his M.A. degree, and later joined his brother in Bombay to work as his assistant before taking up film direction. The multilingual filmmaker of today, Kartik Raghunath, is his son. The vamp role played by Lalitha was originally offered to P. Bhanumathi. The popular song Unnai Kan Theduthe was believed to be sung by Bhanumathi before P. Suseela replaced her voice, although the hiccups in the song were of Bhanumathi’s.

Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XX)

20-1Still from the movie Puthu Vasantham (1990) directed by Vikraman, which was also his first film. This film was a hit blockbuster and inspired many films. Seen are actors Murali and Sithara.

Puthu Vasantham (1990) was Vikraman’s directorial debut. It was a trendsetter in Tamil cinema and entered cult status for its unique story and treatment. During this period when most of the films were about romance and hailing it, Vikraman chose a different path and portrayed friendship over love. In this film, the heroine chooses friendship over her love when it comes to it. She also sacrifices her maternal home for her friends, which she had earlier refused to sell. Many films soon followed, featuring 4 friends and a 5th friend being a girl, though many of these films did not enjoy much success, as the audience found the trope too typical.


Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XIX)

19-1Still from the movie Satyam (1976) directed by S.A. Kanan. Seen here are actors Manjula and Kamal Haasan.

Satyam (1976) was made based on the drama Vidhi written by S.A. Kannan. The film was directed by himself and written by Vietnam Veedu Sundaram with Sivaji Ganesan in the lead role. Kamal Haasan played the role of his younger brother. Kamal was paired with Manjula for the first and only time in his career. The music was by K.V. Mahadevan. Although the film performed averagely, the song Kalyana Kovilil Deiveega Kalasam (picturised on Kamal and Jaya Chitra) is still quite popular among fans of old Tamil songs. It will definitely get listed in the collection of the best songs by K.V. Mahadevan as well.


Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XVIII)

18-1Still from the movie Payanam (1976) directed by Vietnam Veedu Sundaram. Seen here are actors Vijayakumar, Srikanth and Nagesh.

Payanam (1976) was written and directed by Vietnam Veedu Sundaram with music by  M.S. Viswanathan and songs written by Kannadasan. Vietnam Veedu Sundaram who worked as a service boy at United Amateur Artists run by Y.G. Parthasarathy, got interested in drama and cinema, and wrote many stage plays before moving to the big screen. His play Vietnam Veedu became very popular and attained huge success and he got the prefix to his name. He wrote for the film as well, when it was made with the same name under the direction of P. Madhavan.

Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XVII)

17-1Still from the movie Pattanathil Bhootham (1967) directed by M.V. Raman and written by Javar Seetharaman who plays the role of the Genie in the film. Pictured here is the comedian Nagesh in the song Ulagathil Siranthathu Ethu.

Pattanathil Bhootham (1967) has Jaishankar, Nagesh and K.R. Vijaya in lead roles. The film’s music was composed by R. Govardhanam, though it might be mistaken for MS Viswanathan’s work. Govardhanam was assisting the duo Viswanathan-Ramamurthy most of his career. He is often referred to as an unsung hero of Tamil Cinema music. A trombone was used in the song Ulagathil Siranthathu Ethu (the image above is from this song). The film was also famous for a notoriously written song by Kannadasan who wanted an appointment with the then Chief Minister Kamaraj, he penned the lines, “Andha Sivagami Maganidam,” as Sivagami was the Chief Minister’s mother.


Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XVI)

16-1Still from the movie Pattanathil Bhootham (1967) directed by M.V. Raman and written by Javar Seetharaman who plays the role of the Genie in the film. Seen here is the actor/comedian Nagesh.

Pattanathil Bhootham is a Javar Seetharaman written fantasy-comedy film inspired by the Hollywood movie Brass Bottle (1964). Seeetharaman, who started his career as a lawyer, joined Gemini studios in 1940s to pursue his career in films. His performance as Inspector Javet in the movie Ezhai Padum Paadu (1950) (directed by cinematographer/director K. Ramnoth) became very famous and thus his name got the prefix ‘Javet,’ later becoming Javar Seetharaman. Javar wrote the screenplay For S. Balachander’s benchmark film Andha Naal (1954). It was also his first work as a writer.

Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XV)

15-1Still from the K. Balachander directed Manmatha Leelai (1976) in which Kamal Haasan played the lead role.

Manmatha Leelai (1976) Directed by K. Balachander struggled to get a Censor certificate upon its release. The film was criticized a lot for it’s bold content then, but later became a cult classic. The film became a huge hit at the box office. It was actor Radha Ravi’s first Tamil film. He was credited as M.R.R. Ravi then. This film also featured actor Y.G. Mahendran and his father Y.G. Parthasarathy (who had his own drama troupe United Amateur Artistes) working together for the first time in a movie. Manmatha Leelai was dubbed in Telugu as Manmatha Leela (1976) and in Hindi as Meethi Meethi Batein (1977)

Black & White Photographs From The Cinema Resource Centre Archives (XIV)

14-1Still from the movie Kizhakku Vasal (1990) directed by R.V. Udhayakumar. Seen here are actors Revathi and Vijaykumar.

Kizhakku Vasal (1990) was director R.V. Udhayakumar’s 4th film. It was his 2nd collaboration with Karthik after Urimai Geetham, which was his first film. The shooting for this film was plagued with various problems. The set which was built for the film was burnt, and MS Madhu, storywriter for this film, suffered from fits after witnessing the fire. Actress Sulakshana was admitted to a hospital due to a nosebleed. RV Udayakumar was hospitalised due to a car accident, and he went into a coma for one month. After recovery, Udayakumar completed the climax of the film. All the songs in the film were written by Udhayakumar himself and was a big hit with Maestro Ilayaraja’s music. The film ran for 175 days in Chennai’s Devi Bala theatre.