Filmy Ripples – Exotic Instruments in Film music – Part 4

By P.V. Gopalakrishnan

In this concluding part on the above caption, we would strive to feature & discuss about some more of the exotic musical instruments used in our film music.

Trumpet is another popular wind instrument to form a part of the Brass Section of an orchestra, which has been in use in Indian films for a long time.

MSV-TKR has used Trumpet bits in many of his compositions, notables of which include ‘Thulluvatho ilamai’, ‘Adho andha paravai pola’ & ‘Unnai onru ketpen’.

Kishore Sodha has been a reputed trumpet player in Bollywood since 1978 and had worked for composers such as R.D Burman, Kalyanji-Anandji, Bappi Lahiri, Anu Malik, Laxmikant-Pyarelal, Anand-Milind, Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy and more.  His first song on trumpet accompaniment was ‘Rote Hue Aate Hain Sab’ (Muqaddar Ka Sikandar).

The Trumpet is also used placing a ‘mute’ in its ‘bell’ portion so that the sound emanates from there in a muted form. If you hear ‘Maan kanda sorgangal’ from ‘47 Naatkal’, composed by MSV, there are notes from a muted trumpet throughout. The following video explains about a muted trumpet.

Saxophone is an amazing wind instrument, grouped again under Brass Section in Western Orchestra. It was invented in 1840 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax, after whom it is named.

Sax, as it is called in short form, it has been used in many compositions such as ‘Unnai onru ketpen’ (Puthiya Paravai) composed by MSV-TKR, ‘Ammamma keladi thozhi’ (Karuppu panam) by MSV-TKR & ‘Vannam konda vennilave’ (Sigaram) composed & sung by SPB.

Puthiya Paravai

Song book of Puthiya Paravai with the page containing the song UNNAI ONRU KETPEN  PC: From the archives of TCRC

When we talk of Sax in film music, we cannot but mention the late Manohari Singh, a Sax wizard of Nepali  origin, who had played for leading Hindi composers in immortal songs such as ‘Gatha Rahe mera dil’ (Guide) by Sachin Dev Burman & Yeh Duniya usiki (Kashmir ki kali) by O.P.Nayyar.

Another beautiful composition of S.D.Burman featuring Sax was ‘Oh mere jeevan sathi’ from the movie ‘Guide’.

In the film ‘Duet’, A.R.Rahman had the classical sax player, Mr. Kadri Gopalnath, to play through the film. This film, in fact, popularized this instrument.

Trombone is a Brass wind Instrument, the sound of which is produced when the player’s vibrating lips cause the air column vibrate inside the instrument, having a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch.

While Trombone is usually played in Brass bands – accompanying the main theme by giving punching phrases, the potential of this instrument to perform as solo cannot be undermined.

Here is a piece on Trombone playing Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’.

In Indian films’ BGM scores, Trombone is usually played together with other brass instruments. They have had limited scope as a solo in the interludes of movie songs.

In songs such as ‘Ulagathil siranthathu edhu’ (Pattanathil Bhootham), ‘Atho antha paravai pola’ (Ayirathil oruvan) & ‘Kalyana naal parkka’ (Parakkum Pavai) you could hear Trombone bits. Here is the latter song in the composition of MSV-TKR.

Pattanathil Bootham

Song book of Pattanathil Bhootham with the page containing the song ULAGATHIL SIRANTHATHU ETHU PC: From the archives of TCRC

Ilaya Raja’s ‘Ennamma Kannu’ too had Trombone predominantly.

Oud is a short-necked, pear-shaped multi-stringed musical instrument belonging to Lute family, used in Middle Eastern & North African music.

You can rarely hear Oud in Tamil film music.  Ilayaraja’s ‘Matha un kovilil’ from ‘Achani’ (1978) had distinct Oud usage along with Bells in its BGM. Another good usage could be spotted in the A.R.Rahman composed song from ‘Ravanan’

Achani

Song book of Achani with the page containing the song MATHA UN KOVILIL PC: From the archives of TCRC

Maraca is a rhythm instrument of Mexican origin used in Latin American & Rumba music. It is a humble instrument originally made out of gourd shell.

We can spot the rhythmic sounds of Maraca in many film songs if we very carefully listen, but often it gets submerged in the BGM in most of the songs. Here we have selected a Hindi song, ‘Mujhe duniya wale’ by Mohd. Rafi from the film ‘Leader’ (1964) in the music composition of Naushad Ali, where one can make out the ‘chik-chik’ notes raised by Maraca in rhythmic pattern.

Mexican Scratcher is another humble but exotic rhythmic instrument used in Latin American music & Salsa.

R.D.Burman was the pioneering Music Composer to use it in Indian film music when he used it in the poular song ‘Samne wali kidki pe’ from ‘Padosan’. It features very prominently in the song when Keshto Mukherji enacts with a broom, in the early part of the song.

Another exotic but humble instrument called ‘Elathalam’ is a Clash Cymbal used in Temple Music in Kerala. It is a pair of heavy brass cymbals played with one held firmly & the other clashed with it rhythmically.

A.R.Rahman has creatively used it in the song, “Narumugaiye” in the movie ‘Iruvar’. You can hear this bit in the said song when the visual of the hero & heroine appear in the waterfalls sequence.

In our 5th & concluding part of ‘Exotic Instruments in Film music’ next week, we would look at few more of the instruments used in film music.

The Tamil connect at The Venice International Film Festival

The 72nd Venice International Film Festival, organized by La Biennale di Venezia has some interesting line up of films. But two films have caught our special attention.

The first is Visaranai (Interrogation) directed by Vetrimaran and produced by actor Danush’s company Wunderbar Films has been selected in the Orizzonti section which is an international competition dedicated to films that represent the latest aesthetic and expressive trends in international cinema. In the history of the festival Visaranai will be the first Tamil feature film to participate in the competitive category. The director of the film, Vetrimaran has earlier made critically acclaimed films like Polladhavan and Aadukalam and was the co producer of the internationally acclaimed Tamil film  Kaaka Muttai (Crow’s egg).

The second film that caught our attention is Rinku Kalsy’s documentary  “For the love of a man” which has been selected in the Venice classics section where a selection of restored classics and documentaries on cinema will be showcased. Rinku’s film explores the phenomenal fan for Superstar Rajnikanth.

Besides the Tamil connect between Visaranai and ” For the love of a man” there is another interesting connection. Danush, the producer for Visaranai is the son in law of Rajnikanth on whom ” For the love of man” is centered around.

Watch the trailer of the two films here:

 

Happy Birthday Superstar

 

On this special day we would like to release a special image from our collection, a lobby card from the iconic film Baasha (1995) (Tamil)

Baasha-4
Suresh Krishna’s Baasha is an action thriller starring Rajnikanth, Nagma, and Raghuvaran. A loose adaptation of Amitabh Bahchan’s Hum, Baasha is the story of a man who becomes a mafia don and later tries to escape that life by adopting the identity of an autorickshaw driver. Needless to say, his past catches up with him. The film enjoyed a positive box office response and is considered one of Rajnikanth’s most commercially successful films. This movie won him multiple acting awards. 20 years on, Baasha’s autodriver character has been elevated to patron saint status by auto drivers in Chennai and elsewhere in Tamilnadu.

 

Happy birthday Mr.P.C.Sreeram

pc sir

The Cinema Resource Centre would like to wish one of India’s finest cinematographers, Mr. P.C.Sreeram a very Happy Birthday. Here are some of songs that he has picturised over the years.

The Extraordinary Adventures of Dadasaheb Phalke: The “Harishchandra” Story!

The ‘100 years of Indian cinema’ celebrations that are currently underway in various parts of India and also, the world, seem to be generating a lot of great content about the forerunners of Indian cinema. One such remarkable story is the Open magazine’s piece on Dadasaheb Phalke, in which Paresh Mokashi, the director of the award-winning Marathi film “Harishchandrachi Factory” based on the making of the first Indian film “Raja Harishchandra,” talks about the adventures of Phalke, the filmmaker, to Madhavankutty Pillai.

A still from "Raja Harishchandra" (1913). Photo Courtesy: Cineplot.com

A still from “Raja Harishchandra” (1913). Photo Courtesy: Cineplot.com

Phalke’s struggles, in many ways, seem to epitomize the hardships that are faced by anyone who is involved in a pioneering attempt. Check out this nugget narrated by Mokashi:

Phalke needed money to start the film and, as usual, he had nothing. To impress financiers he thought of novel tricks. He put a seed in a pot and filmed it for a couple of seconds every day over a period of 30-40 days. He made a film of that seed growing into a plant and showed it to people to impress on them the power of the new medium. There was no other way he could make people understand. Films, cinema—these are modern words. They were not at his disposal. Indians were only theatre-goers then.”

And apparently, Phalke was also a master at film promotion, much before the term was even coined:

After the movie released, the response to it was lukewarm for the first two or three days. Phalke then started introducing novel marketing techniques. He came out with funny descriptions of the film, announcing in crowded market places that it is a mile long strip of 58,000 little pictures put together. He offered prizes to ticket buyers. The audience started coming in and the movie went on to make money. He not only recovered the film’s costs, but made profits after paying his creditors. With the money, he made two more films, back to back. In one-and-a-half years, he completed three films—Raja Harishchandra (1913), Mohini Bhasmasur (1913) and Satyavan Savitri (1914).”

Mokashi also mentions the contribution of Saraswati Phalke, Dadasaheb’s wife, who shared his enthusiasm for cinema:

Even today, every first time filmmaker is a Phalke. He goes through the same difficulties—a shortage of funds, and making others believe in you to bring them on board. There is also the struggle within you, a creative struggle—will I be able to pull it off? What fascinates me most about the entire story is his wife’s contribution. We don’t know much about Saraswati Phalke, but she was a key element throughout the venture. In fact, Phalke even made a film on the making of Raja Harishchandra. I suspect that it was his wife who shot it, because in one frame of the making we can see the cameraman shooting the film. Saraswati was the only other person in the unit who knew how to wield a camera.”

He also talks about the difficulties faced by Phalke in finding woman actors and also, the bizarre issues that came along with experimenting with a new medium like cinema:

When he couldn’t convince his wife and no other woman was available, Phalke went scouting in red light areas to get a prostitute for the role. Most refused because they considered acting less reputable than their profession. One sex worker agreed and accompanied him home but a regular client of hers came and took her away. Finally, he had to go with a waiter after spotting him in a tea shop.

He asked the men who were playing women in the movie to clean, wash, cook and do all the things that a woman did. It was method acting much before the term was coined. The movie was shot between six to eight months. He built sets first and completed those portions. He then went outdoors to Wangni, on the outskirts of Mumbai, where there is a dense jungle and a river flowing—scenery important for the story. The cast, who had gone before Phalke, was arrested after the police mistook the actors for dacoits due to their costumes.”

We at TCRC salute the pioneering spirit of Dadasaheb Phalke, the man who is often referred to as the father of Indian cinema.

Also, if you haven’t watched Paresh Mokashi’s “Harishchandrachi Factory” (2009) yet, here’s a link to the trailer:

The ‘Epic’ Story of Indian cinema: Moving Beyond Hindi Films & Finding Aravindhan!

The ‘100 years of Indian cinema’ celebrations that are happening across the country is something that we at TCRC wholly welcome, notwithstanding the fact that a vast majority of them seem to interpret it as ‘100 years of Hindi cinema.’ Thankfully, there are voices out there calling for balance and recognition of the other film industries in the country as well. And among such calls, we found Salil Tripathi’s piece for Mint most refreshing.

He starts off by speaking about the influence of our epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, on our cinema:

Indian cinema has always been utterly reliant on the power of a narrative, and which narrative has greater richness than the Mahabharata? After all for Ved Vyas it is said, “Vyasochishtam jagat sarvam,” or whatever you find said in the universe, Vyas has said it before. It is that easy familiarity with the story—or what the critic Ashish Rajadhyaksha called the power of the epic, in his biography of Ritwik Ghatak—that makes Indian cinema so accessible to so many, in a country divided by everything—language, class, caste and faith—but united by the fascination for a good story.”

And then, he makes the argument that we’ve been parroting all along:

 I love Hindi films too, but you don’t honour a national phenomenon by glorifying only one-fifth of it.”

Salil’s roundup of noteworthy cinema from the South of the Vindhyas was particularly interesting:

Moving south, there is so much to admire in Kannada cinema: two of U.R. Ananthamurthy works stand out. Girish Kasaravalli’s Ghatashraddha (1977) is about the outcasting of a pregnant widow. In Pattabhi Rama Reddy’s Samskara (1970), Girish Karnad’s Praneshacharya is a flawed progressive Brahmin who tries to do right, but succumbs to passion and is consumed by guilt. Karnad’s own Ondanondu Kaladalli (1978) was inspired by Akira Kurosawa’s samurai films.

Further south, in Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Elippathayam (1981), the rat trap becomes the metaphor of the patriarchy of a closed society. His earlier film, Swayamvaram (1970), told the story of a young couple marrying against their parents’ wishes, moving to another town to start their life, and the inevitability of tragedy befalling them, and the determination of the young woman to cast her own lonely furrow. Another great film was G. Aravindan’s Oridathu (1986), which showed the transformation of a village’s life, and its people’s relationships, with the arrival of electricity. And the sheer melody of K. Vishwanath’s Telugu classic Shankarabharanam (1979).”

It’s not everyday that one finds a mention of G Aravindhan in a feature-style story about Indian cinema. Hailing from Kottayam in Kerala, Aravindhan was a cartoonist who later became a filmmaker. His debut film “Uttarayanam” was released in 1974 and won the National Award for the Best Feature Film on the 25th Anniversary of India’s Independence. Said to be be one of his finest films, “Uttarayanam” was set against the Independence movement and spoke of the opportunism and hypocrisy that existed during the time. The film is considered to have a played a key role in shaping the parallel cinema movement in Kerala.

Given below is Shaji Karun’s documentary on Aravindhan. Shaji is a National Award-winning filmmaker who used to be Aravindhan’s cinematographer. Shaji’s debut film “Piravi” (1988) won the Caméra d’Or – Mention d’honneur at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival and his 1994 film “Swaham” was the last competitive entry from India to be selected at the Cannes Film Festival.

 

25 Greatest Acting Performances in Indian Cinema: The Forbes List!

The Forbes India magazine recently put out a list of the 25 greatest acting performances in Indian cinema, 8 of which are performances in Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil films.  Now, here at TCRC, we are always a little wary of lists such as these, fully aware that it’s incredibly hard to pick just 8 or 10 performances from over thousands of films made in the southern part of the country across the span of almost a century. But since this list is a part of their ‘100 Years of Indian Cinema’ set of features, we felt compelled to share this. Given below is an excerpt from the piece (click here to check out the entire list):

JV Somayajulu 
in Sankarabharanam (The Ornament of Shankara), 1980 
JV Somayajulu, an IAS officer in his 50s, plays a Carnatic musician, misunderstood for supporting the daughter of a prostitute, ignored by a society where classical music is in decline, and is being overtaken by pop music. It was a surprise hit. It opened to empty seats, gathered speed and, today, enjoys a cult status. Somayajulu played his part with such dignity and intensity that you can’t listen to any of its hugely popular songs without imagining him performing them as his sadhana.

JV Somayajulu in "Sankarabharanam" (Telugu, 1980). Photo Courtesy: Forbes India.

JV Somayajulu in “Sankarabharanam” (Telugu, 1980). Photo Courtesy: Forbes India.

“Sankarabharanam” turned out to be a cult film as far as Telugu cinema was concerned, after getting off to a slow start in the box office. Directed by K Vishwanath, the film is remembered for its music, scored by KV Mahadevan. The film was shot by cinematographer-turned-director Balu Mahendra, who later made “Moondram Pirai” with Kamal Hassan and Sridevi (“Sadma” in Hindi). The director of “Sankarabharanam,” K Vishwanath, went on to narrate yet another story revolving around an art form (classical dance) in “Saagara Sangamam” (“Salangai Oli” in Tamil). The film featured Kamal Hassan and Jayaprada in career-defining roles and like “Sankarabharanam,” it is said to be a musical success, with tunes composed by Ilaiyaraaja.