Filmy Ripples- Exotic Instruments in Film music – Part 3

By P.V. Gopalakrishnan

In this third part on exotic music instruments used in film music in India, we would see few more instruments in this write up.

An unique instrument you used to hear in some songs was ‘Clip Clop’ which essentially had a pair of coconut shells, racing horse-shoe sound when used against a wooden block. In many songs this provided rhythm to the song mimicking the sound by a galloping horse. Listen to ‘Azhagukkum Malarukkum’ from Nenjam Marappathillai in the composition of MSV-TKR.

Then we have the African Drum known as Conga, a tall standing single-headed drum from Cuba, traditionally used in Afro-Cuban genres & Latin music. The film music has routinely used this percussion, to give examples “Vellai pura onru” (Pudhu Kavithai), & “Paadava unthan padalai” (Naan paadum padal), both by Ilayaraja.

Double Bass, an uprightly held huge instrument resembling a giant violin, is played either with a bow or just by plucking the strings. In old Tamil songs these were routinely deployed providing backdrop rhythms as you get to hear in songs such as ‘Envazhvil pudu pathai’ (Bagyalakshmi), ‘Kannale pesi pesi’ (Adutha veettu Penn), ‘Rock n Roll’ (Pathi Bakthi),  ‘Padatha pattellam’ (Veera Thirumagan). But you cant hear this instrument distinctly unless you have a quality speaker set to base amplification. However, Double Bass usage in Tamil film music became rare on the advent of the modern Base Guitar.

‘Ek Tara’ (literally meaning ‘Sole string’ is a rhythm instrument, that used to be carried by sadhus to accompany their renderings, but also used in film music. You can catch the plucking sounds of Ek Tara in ‘Pachai maram onru’ (Ramu), & ‘Kasikku pogum sanyasi’ (Chandrodayam), both by MSV-TKR.

Ramu

Song book of Ramu with the page containing the song PACHAI MARAM ONRU PC: From the archives of TCRC

 

Harmonica (mouth organ) used to be in some songs like ‘Kalangalil aval vasantham’ (Pava Mannippu) & ‘Pirakkum pothum azhuginraay’ (Kavalai illatha manithan), by MSV-TKR.

Their ensemble had Mr. Sadhan who used to play harmonica.

Harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard & the strings are plucked with the fingers. The instrument had great popularity in Europe. In terms of size, while there are smaller harps which can be played on the lap, the larger harps are quite huge & heavy and rest on the floor. The usage of Harp is subtle & is not a main instrument in Tamil songs. You can get the sound bites of a Harp in the opening BGM of  ‘Kodi asainthathum’ (Parthal Pasi Theerum)  by MSV-TKR . Similarly in A.R.Rahman’s ‘Pudhu Vellai mazhai’

Paarthal Pasi Theerum

Song book of Parthal Pasi Theerum with the pages containing the song KODI ASAINTHATHUM PC: From the archives of TCRC

 

‘Gangai nadhi oram’ (Varaprasadam) is another example of Harp usage by Govardhanam.

The young Maegan Pandian is a classical Pedal Harp player & here is a video to get an idea of the instrument.

Kanjira is a hand held percussion instrument used in Carnatic Music & played with the palm and fingers of the right hand, while the left hand supports the drum. The fingertips of the left hand is used to bend the pitch by applying pressure near the outer rim.

There are very few film songs, which have used Kanjira. Two songs come to my mind when we talk of Kanjira. One is, ‘Madhar thammai’ (PeNN) in the voice of T.A.Mothi & music of R.Sudarshanam the other is ‘Jeevan ke har mod pe’ (Joota kahin ka) by R.D.Burman.

 

Morsing (aka Jaw Harp), used as a percussion in Carnatic besides in Rajasthani folk music, is also prevalent in many world cultures. It consists of a metal ring with two parallel forks which form the frame, and a metal tongue in the middle, between the forks, fixed to the ring at one end and free to vibrate at the other. It is held between teeth & played.

MSV had used in many of his compositions to name a few, ‘Ennai yaar enru’ (Palum Pazhamum), ‘Kadhal kadhal enru’ (Utharavinri Ulee Vaa).

Paalum Pazhamum

Song book of Palum Pazhamum with the page containing the song ENNAI YAAR ENRU PC: From the archives of TCRC

 

More in my next on Exotic music instruments used in Indian film music.

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Filmy Ripples – Exotic Instruments in Film music – Part 2

By P.V. Gopalakrishnan

In this second part on ‘Exotic Instruments’ that have been used in our film music, we would cover some more instruments.

Mandolin, a 17th century evolved Italian instrument, with traditionally four courses of double strings, had featured prominently in almost all film music compositions till late sixties.

Among the multitude of songs using Mandolin here is the popular song ‘Neela vanna kannane’ from the film Mallika (1957), in the music of T.R.Paapa.

Mandolin used to be in most of MSV-TKR compositions, having been played by the Legend M.S.Raju. M.S.Raju was a dominant & very senior member of MSV’s orchestra as the man of many parts as he played Mandolin & Santoor besides whistling & doing konnakol.

Listen to ‘Thangathile oru kurai irunthalum’ (Bagapirivinai – 1959) in the beautiful mukhda of the song, in M.S.Raju’s Mandolin.

Bagapirivinai

Song book of Bagapirivinai with the page containing the song THANGATHILE ORU KURAI    PC: From the archives of TCRC

Santoor: is a Kashmiri instrument with seventy two strings and M.S.Raju as well as R.Visweswaran used to play Santoor for MSV.

It was Music Director Naushad, who made people to sit back & take note of this scintillating instrument in the song ‘Mere mehboob thuje’ from the film ‘Mere Mehboob’ (1963), when this instrument attracted attention of many.

The beautiful, reflective santoor used to be common in the BGM of many films, often as a gentle romantic hint in the score during the maiden romantic encounter.

Here is Santoor played by M.S.Raju in the song ‘Aaru maname aaru’ from ‘Andavan Kattalai’ (1964), in MSV-TKR composition.

You can also catch Santoor notes even in Ilayaraja’s ‘Chinna kannan azhaikkiran’ (Kavi Kuyil) in the opening BGM.

Sarangi, a bowed short-neck stringed instrument famed for its close imitation of the human voice, was rarely used in Tamil film songs. But wherever exceptionally used, they lent brilliant emotive grains to the song, as in ‘Ullathil nalla ullam’ from ‘Karnan’ (1964) in the composition of MSV-TKR. For this film MSV had brought musicians from the North.

There is an Instrument called Dilruba/Esraj, from Punjab, which sounds similar to the melancholic strains of Sarangi. The most famous exponent on Dilrupa in Tamil film industry was Dilruba Shanmugham who has played in-numerous scores for legends like MSV and Ilayaraja.

The lilting song, ‘Chinna thai aval’ from Thalapathi by Ilayaraja had Dilruba bits in it.

Sarod, a lute-like instrument from Afghanistan that rose to prominence in the Mughal courts too have featured in films, but exceptionally in Tamil films. The Sarod is highly versatile–when played quickly it can denote excitement and movement, and when plucked slowly it can touch your heart.

Here is a Tamil film song ‘Devan kovil maniyosai’ from the film ‘Mani osai’ (1963) in the music of MSV-TKR where Sarod appears twice in the song, post anthra, just after the flute.

The mesmerizing jugal bandhi between Sitar, Jaltarang and Sarod could be heard in the last portions “Madhuban Mein Radhika” (Kohinoor- 1960), composed by the legend Naushad.

Sitar, a multi-string plucked instrument that influenced the Western pop world in the 1960s (thanks to Pandit Ravi Shankar), when The Beatles and Rolling Stones adopted it. Tamil film music too has used it in songs & BGM.

Mr. Janardhan is a well known Sitar player who had played for film music too.

Sridhar’s ‘Nenjil oar Aalayam’ (1961) featured Sitar in its songs, in the composition of MSV-TKR.

Other notable songs in Tamil with Sitar notes included ‘Kettadhum koduppavane Krishna’ from Deiva Magan (1969) composed by MSV & ‘ennathan ragasiyamo’ from Idhaya Kamalam (1965) composed by K.V.Mahadevan.

Idhaya Kamalam

Song book of Idhaya Kamalam with the page containing the song ENNATHAN RAGASIYAMO PC: From the archives of TCRC

In Hindi, there are many songs featuring Sitar, one of which is the beautiful composition of Salil Chowdhri ‘Oh Sajna’ from the film Parakh.

Another classical based film song in Hindi featuring Sitar was ‘Tere bina zindagi main’ from Andhi composed by R.D.Burman.

Violin, a highly popular bowed four stringed Italian instrument with roots in 16th century Italy, has had global impact, including in orchestral performances of Indian film music, in a big way.

Violins are an integral part of film music orchestration. I’ve listed several songs that highlight its use as a solo instrument, or more commonly as part of a large orchestra seen in numerous Indian film songs.

In each cinema orchestra there will be a ‘First Violinist’ who leads the song along with the vocalist, without over powering the singer. Henry Daniels & V.S.Narasimhan were with MSV-TKR & Ilayaraja, respectively as First Violinists.

Then, of course, the cine orchestra would have a big collection of violinists.

Here are samples of how collective violin players contribute to the compositions. Here is ‘Poga poga theriyum’ from Server Sundaram where violin score has been very briskly & beautifully contrived by the music arrangers.

Shehnai, a double reeded wind instrument made out of wood with wooden flared bell at the other end, has been commonly used in Indian film music.

MSV-TKR had in their orchestra, Satyam whose delectable Shehnai notes could be heard in some of their compositions such as ‘Malai pozhuthin mayakkathile’ (Bagyalakshmi), ‘Avalukkum Thamizh enru paer’ (Panchavarnakili), “Alaya maniyin osaiyai naan’, ‘Ennai yar enru’ (Palum Pazhamum) ‘Kuthu vilakkeriya’ (Pachai Vilakku) & ‘Oru naal iravu’ (Kaviya Thalaivi).

Satyam was an asset to MSV-TKR. There was an episode when recording for Kaviya Thalaivi since MSV could not get what he wanted out of Satyam, resulting in multi takes, Satyam when he retired home after the work denied food from his wife & MSV had to call him up and cajole him!

Oboe, a double reed wood instrument like clarinet, but of treble range of musical notes, has also been used on & off in Tamil Film music.

A classic example is ‘Kanna karumai nira kanna’ from Naanum Oru Penn, in the composition of Sudarsanam in which oboe features.

Flute, an ancient instrument comes in different octaves as well as different pipe construction such as bamboo, metal etc. The traditional bamboo flutes of different sruthis (tonal variations) along with Piccolo Flutes (used in Symphonies) & Shakuhachi (Japanese Flutes) have been associated with pastoral compositions in Indian films.

MSV-TKR had an important orchestra member in Nanjundappa, the flautist. Listen to one of his chirpy works in the very beautifully composed melody ‘Indha manrathil oadi varum’ (Policekaran Magal).

In ‘Chingari Koi Bhadke’ – Amar Prem, composed by R.D.Burman, one can hear the rich & moving notes of a Bansuri flute of bamboo make usually used to signify a tragic or devotional flavours, transporting the listener to a different world.

Who can forget the beautiful flute piece in ‘Chinna kannan azhaikkiran’ (Kavi Kuyil) composed by Ilayaraja, as it seamlessly takes over from the Santoor bit & vioilin serande in the song.

‘Naan manthoppil’ by L.R.Easwari in the film ‘Enga veettu pillai’ (1965) features the shrill Picollo flute which has very high registry.

There are innumerable Tamil film songs embodying delectable flute notes, which are very pleasurable to listen but it would be impractical to mention all of them.

We will continue discussing more of the exotic musical instruments used in our films in our next posting too.

 

Filmy Ripples – Accordion in Film Music

  By P.V. Gopalakrishnan

In the early times when classical music was by far the stronghold in cinema, the orchestras, which were mostly owned in-house by Production Houses, comprised, mostly, traditional Indian musical instruments, including Harmonium & Jalatharangam.

Listen to this song by K.B.Sundarambal from the cult classic film ‘Avvaiyar’ (1953), in which Jalatharangam features along with violins.

Another old song where the BGM, which included Harmonium is minimalistic was from the film “En Manaivi” (1942), featuring Nellore Natesam.

Some of Western & African instruments were also in used in the Tamil movies produced prior to fifties, such as Clarinets, Trumpets, Violins, Piano et al.

Here is an old hit from Vazhkai, in which you could hear Clarinet dominantly in the BGM.

In fact, till much later, Clarinet solos featured in many Tamil film hits, like the song ‘Inbam Pongum Vennila’ from Veera Pandiya Kattabomman, composed by the legend G.Ramanathan. You can hear clarinet in this song in the opening music itself after Sitar, Violins & Univox, in that order.

The Magnum Opus production, “Chandralekha” (1948) by Gemini Vasan had its soundtrack composed by S.Rajeswara Rao with R. Vaidyanathan and B. Das Gupta collaborating with M.D.Parthasarathy  on the background score. In an old interview with ‘The Hindu’, Rajeswara Rao had recalled that it took him over a year to compose the music for the film, with much of the time being taken for the drum dance sequence. He stated that the music for the mammoth Drum Dance sequence they had used Trumpets, piano, many Double Bass violins and drums from Africa, Egypt, and Persia acquired from a visiting African war troupe. Cooling Rajiah played the Accordion & Piano in the gypsy song in the same film.

Chandralekha

A still of Ranjan from the Film Chandralekha directed by S.S. Vasan.
PC: From the Archives of TCRC

In the Post Independence era, the Tamil movies started seeing changes in terms of story subjects, the way dialogues were delivered & even the music compositions, in tune with the overall metamorphosis that was witness to the change of air, all around.

The music directors were ever ready to bring in new music instruments into film music.

Though Tamil Cinema, despite being the big brother of other Southern Regional Filmmakers, traditionally followed trends in Hindi film industry.

The sensational Rajkapoor film ‘Awara” (1951) had Musical notes that was thought to be Accordion notes, which distinguished the song “Awara Hoon” by Music Directors Shankar-Jaikishen duo, inspired by an old Turkish tune.

However, there is a theory that the notes were, in fact, not Accordion at all but was played on Harmonium by one Vistasp Balsara, who passed away in 2005. He claimed, in an interview to Calcutta Doordarshan, to have played such Harmonium pieces also in other classics such as “Yaad Kiya Dil Ne” (Patita, 1953) and “Aye Mere Dil Kahin Aur Chal” (Daag, 1952).

But Accordion has come to stay by then as an important cine instrument in Hindi. Here is another breezy number from another Rajkapoor starrer, ‘Dastan’, where notable Accordion notes by the player Goody Servai decorate the song composed by Naushad.

There were other noted Accordionists in Hindi Film Industry such as Kersi Lord (Roop tera mastana in Aradhana), Sumit Mitra (Har Dil jo pyar karega in Sangam) Enoch Daniels (Beqrar karke hame from Bess saal Baad). Of these we have to specially mention about Late Kersi Lord, who was a multi instrumentalist & who immortalized some of the Hindi film hits with his contribution. He was honoured with Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2010, as a cine musician. He was the one who played the bells like sounding ‘Glockenspiel’ instrument in the famed song ‘Main Zindagi Ka Sath Nibhata Chala Gaya’ composed by Jayadev in ‘Hum Dono’.

The accordion thus became an oft-used instrument in Hindi cinema under legendary Music directors such as C Ramchandra, Naushad, Shankar-Jaikishan, Salil Chowdhury and S D Burman as they made it a part of their compositions.

It was in Pava Mannippu (1961) that MSV-TKR featured Accordion in ‘Athan….En athan’ composition & the  Accordionist was our own Mangalamurthy.

Accordionist Mangalamurthy was this writer’s craft teacher in the high school, in the late fifties, but owing to his parallel music career he was hardly seen in the school and was on long leave.

MSV had used Accordionist Mangalamurthy in many of his compositions. Some of the songs where Accordion has predominantly featured are “Avalukkenna” (server Sundaram), “Ulagam piranthathu enakkaga” (Paasam), ‘Kannirandum mella mella’ (Andavan Kattalai),  Ponaal pogattum poda (Palum Pazhamum), “Netryvarai nee yaro” (Vazhkkai Padagu), “Unga ponnana kaigal” (Kathalikka Neramillai), “Poranthalum ambilaiyaa” (Policekaran Magal), “Kan pona pokkile” (Panam Padaithavan), “Iyarkkai ennum ilaiya kanni” (Shanthi Nilayam), “Varavu ettana” (Bhama Vijayam), “Naalai intha neram parthu” (Uyarntha Manithan).

In the following video of Avalukenna song, Mangalamurthy features himself playing accordion, along with his other legendary co musicians, such as Philip (Guitarist) & Raju (Mandolin/Santoor/ Yodelling).

The accordion’s origin is said to be from Berlin & this heavy instrument, worn on the player’s chest, weighs about 7 kgs.

A R Rahman gave Accordion a home coming again & his accordion could be heard throughout the film Guru & even in his Tamil composition ‘Nenjukkulle’ from the film ‘Kadal’.

https://soundcloud.com/aruin/kadal-bgm-nenjukkule-accordion

We will talk about some more veteran cine musicians from old Tamil Films & their exotic instruments in our upcoming articles.